Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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United States

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

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United States Table US.1 Small Entity patent counts by year, 1994 to 2003 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 10 yrs Individual 11,725 11,631 12,401 11,749 14,776 15,117 14,629 13,702 12,044 11,254 129,028 Small Firm 8,717 8,688 9,732 10,369 13,667 13,738 13,966 13,696 12,646 12,929 118,148 Nonprofit 1,572 1,644 2,022 2,336 3,015 3,119 2,760 2,830 2,652 2,659 24,609 Total 22,014 21,963 24,155 24,454 31,458 31,974 31,355 30,228 27,342 26,842 271,785 Figure US.1 SE counts, % change on 1994 with % change year on year 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% -10.00% 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 % change from 1994 % change yr on yr 176 United States 177 Table US.2 Cited Small Entity patents, 1994 to 2002 Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Cited>=1 20,110 19,773 21,103 20,398 24,394 21,458 16,250 8,825 832 % >=1 91.4% 90.0% 87.4% 83.4% 77.5% 67.1% 51.8% 29.2% 3.0% Cited >= 3 15,063 14,259 14,321 12,631 13,059 8,812 4,493 1,171 24 % >= 3 68.4% 64.9% 59.3% 51.7% 41.5% 27.6% 14.3% 3.9% 0.1% Total 22,014 21,963 24,155...

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