Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Appendix A: Extract from the USPTO Manual of Patent Examining Procedure

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

Extract

Appendix A: Extract from the USPTO Manual of Patent Examining Procedure § 1.27 Definition of small entities and establishing status as a Small Entity to permit payment of Small Entity fees; when a determination of entitlement to Small Entity status and notification of loss of entitlement to Small Entity status are required; fraud on the Office. (a) Definition of small entities. A Small Entity as used in this chapter means any party (person, small business concern, or nonprofit organization) under paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section. (1) Person. A person, as used in paragraph (c) of this section, means any inventor or other individual (e.g., an individual to whom an inventor has transferred some rights in the invention), who has not assigned, granted, conveyed, or licensed, and is under no obligation under contract or law to assign, grant, convey, or license, any rights in the invention. An inventor or other individual who has transferred some rights, or is under an obligation to transfer some rights in the invention to one or more parties, can also qualify for Small Entity status if all the parties who have had rights in the invention transferred to them also qualify for Small Entity status either as a person, small business concern, or nonprofit organization under this section. (2) Small business concern. A small business concern, as used in paragraph (c) of this section, means any business concern that: (i) Has not assigned, granted, conveyed, or licensed,...

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