Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness
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Patents and the Measurement of International Competitiveness

New Data on the Use of Patents by Universities, Small Firms and Individual Inventors

William Kingston and Kevin Scally

This highly original book represents a major advance in the use of patents to compare countries’ technological competitiveness. It tabulates and analyses 280,000 United States patents from countries across the world over a ten year period. Specifically, these patents were granted to ‘not-for-profit’ entities (mainly universities and research institutes), firms with no more than 500 employees, or to individual inventors. For each of these groups, the book provides statistics and discussion on how long patents are kept in force, the extent to which they are cited, and how far inventions made in different countries are in fact owned in the United States.
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Appendix D: Countries with fewer than 18 SE patents between 1994 and 2003 (Group E)

William Kingston and Kevin Scally


Country Albania Algeria Andorra Anquilla Antigua Arab Emirates Armenia Aruba Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Barbados Bermuda Bolivia Bosnia/Herz. Congo Cook Islands Cyprus Dominica Dominican Rep. Ecuador El Salvador Estonia Fiji Count Country 1 1 6 1 6 9 3 4 2 3 1 3 17 5 2 1 1 7 3 5 11 6 6 2 F. Polynesia Georgia Guatemala Guinea Haiti Honduras Indonesia Iran Jamaica Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Korea, N. Kyrgyzstan Latvia Lebanon Lithuania Macau Malta Marshall I. Mauritius Moldova Morocco Myanmar 192 Count Country 2 10 8 1 2 7 17 4 8 4 12 9 1 3 5 15 7 4 12 2 2 2 4 1 Neth. Antilles New Guinea Nicaragua Nigeria Pakistan Panama Paraguay Qatar San Marino Sri Lanka St Kitts/Nevis St Vincent Suriname Syria Trinidad/Tob. Uganda Uruguay Uzbekistan Vietnam Virgin I. Yemen Zimbabwe Count 6 1 1 13 4 9 1 1 2 7 8 1 2 3 12 2 15 8 1 8 1 5 Turks & Caicos I. 6

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