Public Sector Employment in Ten Western Countries
Edited by Hans-Ulrich Derlien and B. Guy Peters
Chapter 11: The Welfare State is Female: Trends in Public Sector Employment in Sweden
11. The welfare state is female: trends in public sector employment in Sweden Jon Pierre MEASURING PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT IN SWEDEN This chapter provides a fairly broad-brushed image of recent changes in public sector employment in Sweden. Public employment in Sweden is measured using several diﬀerent types of data. The chapter therefore discusses developments in Swedish public employment in the context of general issues and problems associated with measuring it. These problems are discussed extensively elsewhere in this volume. Therefore, this chapter will only point at a couple of issues which seem to be particularly salient in the Swedish case. The public sector in Sweden, particularly those institutions which deliver welfare state services, developed an almost worldwide reputation during the ﬁrst three decades after the Second World War. It should be noted, however, that a large part of the ‘welfare state’ were redistributive programmes, that is a progressive tax system coupled with income-related public transfers. In addition to these programmes there are several transfers which are not related to income but rather, universal. What is more, and the most relevant sector of the Swedish welfare state in the present context, the welfare state developed extensive services in areas such as medical care, care of the elderly and daycare centres for preschool-age children. These sectors are fairly labour-intensive hence it is here that we ﬁnd a large part of the explanation to the previous growth in public sector employment in Sweden. By the same token, the cutbacks that have been implemented...
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