Creative Knowledge Environments
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Creative Knowledge Environments

The Influences on Creativity in Research and Innovation

Edited by Sven Hemlin and Carl Martin Allwood

Although there is an ever increasing demand for new technology and innovations in the economy and society in general, we currently know little about the conditions for stimulating creativity in relation to research and innovative activity. This book fills a significant gap in the literature by examining the environmental factors that encourage creative working processes for research and innovation.
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Chapter 8: Scientific research collaboration in South America as reflected in the SCI

Isabel Bortagaray


® Isabel Bortagaray1 INTRODUCTION The production of knowledge is undergoing major changes. Some of these changes include higher societal expectations regarding the usefulness of knowledge, transformations in the scientific process itself and transformations in the different institutional arrangements and actors engaged in that process. Increasingly knowledge production is distributed across institutions, making them more permeable and less self-contained. As part of this trend, researchers tend to approach science in a more collective way, collaborating not only with colleagues from the same institution, but also with researchers from different institutions, sectors (university, government, industry) and countries. Even though this process seems to be a global trend, there are some variations across countries. These variations are in part due to institutional settings, cultural patterns of the scientific community and its relation with society, as well as to resources dedicated to the scientific enterprise. South American countries, for instance, share many features of this process of transformation but with some differences, not only when compared to more industrialized countries, but also among themselves. A common pattern among them, however, is the leading role of the university in academic research, and low private commitment to research and development. Collaboration is therefore expected to occur more frequently among actors of the same nature, and more particularly between academic researchers because of the preponderant role of the university in the research enterprise. This study attempts to contribute to this general discussion by describing the patterns of scientific collaboration in South American countries, using scientific articles indexed in...

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