Outcomes and Perspectives
Chapter 9: A Chaordic Lens for Understanding Entrepreneurship and Intrapreneurship
Frans M. van Eijnatten INTRODUCTION In the last twenty years, scientific thinking about entrepreneurship has slowly but steadily migrated from an entrepreneur-focused approach into an entrepreneurial-process-based endeavour (Bygrave and Hofer, 1991). Nowadays entrepreneurship may be best defined in a discontinuous, holistic and dynamic way: changing the competitive structure of the industry or service, incorporating both the system and its unique context, and understanding a venture as being an integral part of the total industry system (Bygrave and Hofer, 1991). Paula Kyrö distinguishes three forms of entrepreneurship (Kyrö, 2000, 43): ‘1) Entrepreneurship, referring to the individual entrepreneur and his firm; 2) Intrapreneurship, referring to an organization’s collective behaviour; and 3) Individual, self-oriented entrepreneurship, referring to an individual’s selforiented behaviour.’ In this chapter we will use these types of entrepreneurship rather loosely and interchangeably. Reflecting on the 4th McGill Conference on International Entrepreneurship Marian Jones and Pavlos Dimitratos (2003, 159–60) state in an introduction to a special issue of the Journal of International Entrepreneurship that: ‘entrepreneurial creativity, entrepreneurial culture, and the notion of time are three key elements contributing to the internationalisation process of firms’. These authors define entrepreneurial creativity as the recognition – by the entrepreneur – of opportunities for development, and the exploitation of resources to enable international market entry. In the special issue Pavlos Dimitratos and Emmanuella Plakoyiannaki define entrepreneurial culture as ‘that organizational culture which facilitates and accommodates the entrepreneurial activities of the firm in the international marketplace’ (Dimitratos and Plakoyiannaki, 2003, 193). The definition of time has proved...
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