Outcomes and Perspectives
Chapter 12: Cultural Change from Entrepreneurship to Intrepreneurship
12. Cultural change from entrepreneurship to intrapreneurship Iiris Aaltio INTRODUCTION Management of innovation and change is an area that creates attention widely: in addition to practitioners and educators it is a central focus in plenty of academic research. As Tushman and Nadler (1996, 135) state: ‘there is no executive task more vital and demanding than the sustained management of innovation and change. . . . Companies must adopt innovation as a way of corporate life.’ Edgar Schein (1990; 1983; and 1985b) has pointed the central role of founders and owner-managers in creation of innovative organizational culture of enterprises. Galbraight (1996, 161) has compared the operating and innovating organizations and, especially, shows the impact of components like organizational structure, organizational processes, reward systems and Human Resource Practices on innovative organizational culture. Kanter (1988, 172) notes that the innovation process is uncertain and unpredictable, knowledge intensive, controversial, and that it crosses boundaries. She also states that although innovation stems from individual talent and creativity, the organizational context mediates this individual potential and channels it into production. Williams and Yang (1999, 373–91) also discuss theories of creativity and their applications to organizations, pointing to the multiple theoretical debates behind entrepreneurial organizations and innovations. Even if we have knowledge about entrepreneurial organizations and organizational cultures in general, there is still a lack of knowledge about how entrepreneurial organization cultures develop. There is only limited understanding on managerial issues related to creation and change of entrepreneurial organization cultures. Lack of empirical insights and, more specifically, empirical studies...
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