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Research Companion to Organizational Health Psychology

Edited by Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou and Cary L. Cooper

This timely Research Companion is essential reading to advance the understanding of healthy behaviours within working environments and to identify problems which can be the cause of illness. Containing both theoretical and empirical contributions written by distinguished academics working in Europe, North America and Australia, the book covers leading edge topics ranging from current theories of stress, stress management, and stress in specific occupational groups, such as doctors and teachers, to the relationship of stress with well-being. It provides systematic approaches towards practical actions and stress interventions in working environments and a solid theoretical framework for future research. It will be an essential companion to research on psychology and medicine as well as stress.
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Chapter 22: The Role of Psychosocial Factors in the Development of Periodontal Disease

Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou, Diamanto Komboli and John Vrotsos


Alexander-Stamatios G. Antoniou, Diamanto Komboli, John Vrotsos and Zacharias Mantzavinos Introduction Periodontal diseases constitute infections related to specific pathogenic bacteria, which, in turn, attack and subsequently colonize the subgingival area. Several specific oral bacteria can be considered as representative for periodontal diseases and these include Actinobasillicus actinomycetemcomitans, Bacteroides forsythus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Camphylobacter rectus and Fusobacterium nucleatum, all of which are associated with more severe forms of periodontal diseases (Genco et al., 1998). Periodontal diseases are now recognized as the bacterial infections which affect a large proportion of the general adult population of 25–75-year-olds, causing great discomfort, pain and tooth loss (Hugoson and Jordan, 1982; Miller et al., 1987; Brown and Loë, 1993). A very important feature of the disease is that these specific bacteria are capable of colonizing the subgingival area and infecting it in spite of the protective mechanisms of the host (Baker et al., 1961). The initiation and progression of periodontal diseases is determined and modified by specific local and systemic conditions, which are identified as risk factors. Genco (1996) has divided risk factors into two categories: (a) local risk factors, which are related to an earlier stage of development including dietary factors, osteopenia/osteoporosis, AIDS and stress, and (b) systemic risk factors which can be modified, including factors such as tobacco smoking and diabetes mellitus. The fact that the systemic risk factors can be modified is very important for the management of the disease. Risk factors are considered...

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