Elements of Entrepreneurial Expertise
Chapter 7: Entrepreneurship as a Science of the Artificial
In The Sciences of the Artiﬁcial, Simon did not explicitly discuss entrepreneurship as an instance of such a science. But it is implied in his classiﬁcation of the social sciences under the rubric of the artiﬁcial. For Simon, human intention and design were central to the social sciences, and the word ‘man-made’ was synonymous with ‘artiﬁcial’: The world we live in today is much more a man-made, or artiﬁcial, world than it is a natural world. Almost every element in our environment shows evidence of man’s artiﬁce. The temperature in which we spend most of our hours is kept artiﬁcially at 20 degrees Celsius; the humidity is added to or taken from the air we breathe; and the impurities we inhale are largely produced (and ﬁltered) by man. (Simon, 1981: 4–5) And a little later: One may object that I exaggerate the artiﬁciality of our world. Man must obey the law of gravity as surely as does a stone, and as a living organism man must depend for food, and in many other ways, on the world of biological phenomena. I shall plead guilty to overstatement, while protesting that the exaggeration is slight. (Ibid.: 5) 7.2.1 What is a Science of the Artiﬁcial? Simon included in the sciences of the artiﬁcial the study of those ‘objects and phenomena in which human purpose as well as natural law are embodied’ (Simon, 1981: 6). He provided several characterizations of what he...
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