Learning from Innovation in the Health Industry
Edited by Marco R. Di Tommaso and Stuart O. Schweitzer
Chapter 12: High-Technology Clusters in France: Two Unusual Models – An Empirical Study
12. High-technology clusters in France: two unusual models – an empiric study Grégory Katz-Bénichou and Gérard Viens INTRODUCTION Over the last two decades, the development of businesses based on scientiﬁc and technical knowledge, and in particular those in the ﬁelds of information technology and biotechnology, has quite clearly been a driver of economic growth in North America as well as in Europe. The United States has established itself as the leader in this area by developing networks which link together universities, research centres and business centres. This is not the case in Europe, where relationships between the academic and business worlds have not been as widely developed, partly owing to laws that limit such relationships and partly because of a traditional reluctance to do so. However, it is true that, since the 1980s, Europe has become much more interested in technological policy and in the transfer of technology from the academic to the business world. In a climate dominated by fears that the European Union is not competitive enough in industrial sectors dependent on scientiﬁc knowledge, an initial programme of R&D technologies was set up in 1987, after the Single European Act had been adopted (Pammolli et al., 2002). Such programmes sought to foster relations between universities and businesses by insisting on swift, tangible results which would lead to practical business applications. In spite of these changes, the United States has still maintained its dominant position ahead of Europe as far as innovation and transfer...
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