Edited by Fergus Carr and Andrew Massey
Chapter 9: Governing the Third Pillar: Institutional Development and External Relations in Justice and Home Affairs Before and After 11 September
Paul Norman INTRODUCTION This chapter examines the developing governance of the third pillar and how the Justice and Home Affairs (JHA) dimension of European Union (EU) external relations has been affected by the events of 11 September 2001. The EU’s legal and strategic policy frameworks for integration in JHA had already been established, respectively within the Treaty of Amsterdam and at the Tempere European Council (European Council, 1999a); however these were substantially unrealized despite a number of innovations that sought to overcome the limits of governance within JHA cooperation (Norman, 1999). The innovations included greater strategic continuity for the multi-annual planning of work programmes but also the development of meso-level policy communities within and outside the EU, to implement to the strategic objectives of the European Council (and the Group of Eight – G8) particularly in action against ‘organized crime’. But the participation of the EU in the ‘war on terrorism’ in the aftermath of 11 September, and the consequent elevation of counter-terrorism as a ‘major policy objective’, proved to be a signiﬁcant turning point for comprehensive attainment of the EU internal security objectives and its projection externally. The EU’s ‘roadmap’ against terrorism agreed in the aftermath of 11 September was ambitious. Internally, the EU and its member states launched a signiﬁcant programme to realize a diverse range of criminal police and judicial policy initiatives, operational action and institution building, with political agreement on contentious issues such as the abolition of extradition and the establishment of the judicial cooperation...
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