Edited by Fergus Carr and Andrew Massey
Chapter 10: International Terrorism and EU Immigration, Asylum and Borders Policy: The Unexpected Victims of 11 September 2001
Elspeth Guild INTRODUCTION What is the relationship between forced migration and terrorism in the European Union after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001? I will argue here that there is no direct relationship between forced migrants coming to Europe and the risk of terrorism in the EU. In so far as a relationship exists, it is indirect, the result of a displacement of linkages made at the political level about security and borders. Forced migration is only one form of border crossing, but it is the one which engages international human rights commitments directly. Forced migrants are normally classiﬁed by EU member states as asylum seekers and refugees.1 In none of the 11 September and subsequent terrorist-related attacks have asylum seekers been directly or indeed indirectly implicated.2 Movement by persons across borders has, however, been central to the 11 September 2001 US terrorist attacks in the form of foreign students, tourists and possibly irregular migrants.3 The ﬁrst EU Justice and Home Affairs Council meeting following the US attacks took place on 20 September 2001 with an agenda exclusively devoted to the EU response on security and other measures to combat terrorism.4 Four types of measures were adopted: first measures on judicial cooperation,5 cooperation between police and intelligence services, cooperation with the USA, and measures at the border. Speciﬁcally the JHA Council agreed to strengthen the controls at the external borders of the EU; increase surveillance measures under Article 2(3) Schengen Implementing Agreement 1990,6 reinforce...
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