Edited by Fergus Carr and Andrew Massey
Chapter 13: Environmental Policy
Pamela Barnes INTRODUCTION The European Union (EU)’s environmental policy is a ﬁeld of action that is characterized by a high degree of Europeanization. More than 80 per cent of national environmental policy has been made at EU level. There is thus a considerable sharing of the norms of the EU’s environmental discourse among the policy makers at supranational, national and subnational levels within the EU15. For the new member states, the conditions of accession have driven the development of their national environmental policies since the early 1990s. However, the EU’s environmental discourse has not yet become the dominant ideology among the policy makers and policy implementers within the new states. As a result the dynamism and innovation of EU environmental policy making in the 1990s may slow down after 2004. It is to be hoped that actions will not be taken after enlargement that will undermine what has already been achieved. It would not be in the interest of any EU state, nor would it be in the long-term interests of future member states (including Turkey), to allow this to happen. This chapter begins with a review of the development of the EU’s environmental acquis, followed by discussion of the policy issues and debates surrounding the search for mechanisms to achieve sustainable development. The main focus of attention is the impact of the 2004 enlargement and the factors that will facilitate the process of Europeanization of the national environmental policies of the new states. The environmental acquis was transposed...
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