Edited by Stephen Tully
Chapter 90: UN: Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts, 1977
Commentary: The First Additional Protocol (1125 UNTS 3, entry into force 1978) specifies further provisions applicable to international armed conflicts. Note that for the purposes of Protocol 1, ‘wounded’, ‘sick’, ‘shipwrecked’ and ‘medical’ or ‘religious’ personnel mean persons ‘whether military or civilian’ and medical ‘units’ or ‘transports’ means establishments or means ‘whether military or civilian’ (Article 8). Thus the protections applicable to these categories (not reproduced below) also apply to civilian organisations. Annex 1, Chapter 6, Article 16 identifies the international special sign for works and installations containing dangerous forces (a group of three bright orange circles of equal size placed on the same axis with the distance between each circle being one radius). Part I: General Provisions Article 1: General Principles and Scope of Application 2. In cases not covered by this Protocol or by other international agreements, civilians and combatants remain under the protection and authority of the principles of international law derived from established custom, from the principles of humanity and from the dictates of public conscience. 3. This Protocol, which supplements the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 for the protection of war victims, shall apply in the situations referred to in Article 2 common to those Conventions. Part III: Methods and Means of Warfare, Combatant and Prisoner of War Status Article 43: Armed Forces 1. The armed forces of a Party to a conflict consist of all organized armed forces, groups and units which are under a command responsible to that Party for the conduct...
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