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International Documents on Corporate Responsibility

Edited by Stephen Tully

International Documents on Corporate Responsibility includes the principal international, regional and national instruments drafted by intergovernmental organisations or states as well as codes of conduct formulated by industry associations, trade unions and non-governmental organisations. The coverage includes the fields of human rights, international criminal and environmental law, labour standards, international trade, armed conflict, sustainable development, corruption, consumer protection and corporate governance. Each document is accompanied by a brief explanatory commentary outlining the historical origins of the instrument, the principal actors involved, controversial negotiation issues, applicable implementation procedure, and identifies further reference material.
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Chapter 121: WHO: Inernational Code of Marketng of Breast-milk Substitutes, 1981


121. WHO: International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes, 1981 Commentary: The International Code was prepared by the WHO and UNICEF following consultation with governments, industry, professional associations and NGOs: see further, Resolution WHA33.32 (1980). It was finally adopted through WHA Resolution WHA34.22 (1981). WHA resolutions ‘carry moral or political weight, as they constitute the judgement on a health issue of the collective membership of the highest international body in the field of health’: Shubber, S. (1985), ‘The International Code’, Digest of Health Legislation, 36 (4), 884. Several additional resolutions have since been adopted to clarify or revise the International Code: see Resolutions WHA35.26 (1982), 37.30 (1984), 39.28 (1986), 41.11 (1988), 43.3 (1990), 45.34 (1992), 47.5 (1994), 49.15 (1996), 54.2 (2001) and 55.25 (2002). Manufacturers and distributors of infant baby food are expected to comply and NGOs, professional groups, institutions and individuals may report violations. See further, WHO (1994), ‘Infant Formula and Related Trade Issues’, WHA Doc WHA47/1994/REC/1/, Annex 1; WHO (2001), ‘ “Follow-Up Formula” in Nutrition for Health and Development’, Geneva. For commentary, see UNCTC (1982), ‘The International Code of Marketing Breast-Milk Substitutes’, The CTC Reporter, 11, 29–32. For commercial perspectives, see the International Council of Infant Formula Industries (1981), ‘Infant Formula Marketing in the Third World’, National Journal, 854. See also FAO, Codex Alimentarius Commission, Code of Hygienic Practice for Foods for Infants and Children. Article 1. Aim of the Code The aim of this Code is to contribute to the provision of safe and adequate nutrition for...

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