Edited by Léo-Paul Dana and Robert B. Anderson
Chapter 1: Toward a Multidisciplinary Definition of Indigenous Entrepreneurship
1 Toward a multidisciplinary deﬁnition of indigenous entrepreneurship Léo-Paul Dana Discussing the multidisciplinary nature of entrepreneurship, Landström wrote, ‘there is a risk that it is becoming more diﬃcult to form an overall picture of the ﬁeld, which means that researchers in one discipline tend to ignore studies in other disciplines. As a result, dialogue between researchers is made more diﬃcult, and the accumulation of knowledge in the ﬁeld is inhibited’ (1999, p. 15). The objective of this book is to bring together great minds from diﬀerent disciplines, to further the understanding of indigenous entrepreneurship. The aristocrat industrialist Jean Baptiste Say deﬁned the entrepreneur as the individual who ‘unites all means of production and who ﬁnds in the value of the products . . . the reestablishment of the entire capital he employs, and the value of the wages, the interest, and the rent which he pays, as well as the proﬁts belonging to himself’ (1816, pp. 28–9). Mill (1848), considered entrepreneurship to be direction, supervision, control and risk taking, with risk being the main distinguishing feature between the manager and the owner–manager. Later, Schumpeter (1928, 1934) focused on the instability of capitalism and on the entrepreneur’s function as an innovator, ‘The carrying out of new combinations we call “enterprise”; the individuals whose function it is to carry them out we call “entrepreneurs” ’ (Schumpeter, 1934, p. 74). Fraser (1937) associated entrepreneurs with the management of a business unit, proﬁt taking, business innovation...
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