International Handbook of Research on Indigenous Entrepreneurship
Show Less

International Handbook of Research on Indigenous Entrepreneurship

Edited by Léo-Paul Dana and Robert B. Anderson

The comprehensive and thoroughly accessible International Handbook of Research on Indigenous Entrepreneurship aims to develop a multidisciplinary theory explaining entrepreneurship as a function of cultural perceptions of opportunity. The Handbook presents a multitude of fascinating, superbly illustrated studies on the facets of entrepreneurship amongst indigenous peoples.
Buy Book in Print
Show Summary Details
You do not have access to this content

Chapter 7: Values, Resource Endowment and Ethnic Entrepreneurship in Africa: The Case of Nande, Luba and Kumu in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Jean-Marie Nkongolo-Bakenda


Jean-Marie Nkongolo-Bakenda Introduction This chapter takes us to the former Belgian Congo, known for a period as Zaire, and now as the Democratic Republic of Congo. Its capital, formerly known as Leopoldville, is Kinshasha. Entrepreneurship is increasingly viewed as essential to economic growth and social development (Leff, 1979). From its Schumpeterian perspective, entrepreneurship is a combination of already existing endowments to produce something novel. The ability to carry out such a combination is available in any society at any time and place. Indeed, as stressed by Baumol (1993), societies are not static, with each new day identical to the ones that have preceded. One can therefore affirm that entrepreneurial talents are universally distributed. But if this is true, why do some regions have more productive entrepreneurial activities than others? And why are some communities more entrepreneurial during some periods of time than at others? Responses provided by scholars to these questions are not simple. For Baumol (1993: 25), ‘how the entrepreneur acts at a given time and place depends heavily on the rules of the game’. Thus, depending on contexts, some entrepreneurs are productive while others may be unproductive and, even, destructive for their society. Therefore those who want to explain the higher entrepreneurial propensity of a given region or to improve the entrepreneurial propensity of a particular region must, in addition to exploring individual and cognitive aspects of entrepreneurship (Hayton, George and Zahra, 2002), explore the nature of the rules of the game that result in productive entrepreneurship...

You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.

Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.

Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.

Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

Further information

or login to access all content.