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International Handbook on Industrial Policy

Edited by Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory

This timely and much-needed Handbook reconsiders an old topic from a fresh perspective, raising a number of new, interesting and worthwhile issues in the wake of ten years of globalization. This comprehensive analysis illustrates that old-style industrial policies whereby the government directly intervened in markets, and was often the producer itself, are no longer relevant. Structural changes occurring in economies – summarized in the term ‘globalization’ – are triggering the definition and implementation of new industrial policies. The contributors, leading experts in their field, unite to evaluate this shift of over a decade ago.
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Chapter 1: From ‘Old’ Industrial Policy to ‘New’ Industrial Development Policies

Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory


Patrizio Bianchi and Sandrine Labory Introduction The last 20 years have been characterized by significant changes in productive structures and international competition. The entry of new competitors, such as Japan in the 1980s and China and India more recently; technological changes such as the diffusion of information and telecommunication technologies (ICTs) and scientific breakthroughs such as genetic engineering and the development of biotechnologies; institutional changes such as the deepening of European integration and enlargement of the European Union (EU); social and demographic changes such as the ageing of the population in developed countries; and so on have led to the necessity of structural adjustments so significant as to redesign the economy and the society beyond the boundaries of national states. All these changes imply the definition of new industrial policies, at both national and international levels. In fact, new approaches to industrial policy have been tried out throughout the world, in particular the formulation and implementation of policies ‘from the bottom’ (local or regional), in a context in which the central authorities seem no longer to have the coercion and command powers they used to have. In contrast, old-type industrial policies were direct interventions by the central state in markets to pick winners and support the development of particular sectors. This policy functioned in a context where the national state was indeed the reference. We define industrial policies as a variety of public actions aimed at guiding and controlling the structural transformation process of...

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