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Economic Development Through Entrepreneurship

Government, University and Business Linkages

Edited by Scott Shane

Despite a wealth of efforts that examine separately the role entrepreneurs and universities play in economic development, no systematic effort has been made to examine the role universities play in promoting economic development through entrepreneurship. This book fills that gap, focusing on policy aspects of government–university partnerships with a discussion both of best practices and problematic strategies. The book begins by tracing the history of American government–university–industry partnerships that have promoted economic development. In succeeding chapters, well-known scholars focus on linkages in different domains such as: technology transfer, innovation networks, brain drain, cluster-based planning, and manufacturing. Practitioner commentaries follow many of the chapters in order to present an evaluation of the arguments from the perspective of someone directly involved in the fostering of these relationships.
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Chapter 9: Universities, Entrepreneurship and Public Policy: Lessons from Abroad

Bo Carlsson


Bo Carlsson INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to review the recent literature on academic entrepreneurship and public policy, to compare and contrast the research findings in the United States and overseas and to draw out the policy lessons.1 It is clear from the start that there are fundamental differences between the United States and its foreign competitors in this arena, namely (1) that the legal environment for academic entrepreneurship in the USA differs from that elsewhere, and (2) that the US economy is much more entrepreneurial than most societies elsewhere. This means that the mechanisms used to transfer ideas and research findings from the academy to business and then to transform them into new businesses are different. Thus the US literature focuses primarily on technology transfer and on examining the institutional features, particularly on the university side, of the university–industry interface. In most of the rest of the world, by contrast, until recently there have been very few technology licensing or tech transfer offices at universities. This is largely a reflection of differences in intellectual property rights. In continental Europe, the inventor (not the university) is the owner of the intellectual property resulting from academic research. As a result, the literature focuses more on other mechanisms of spillover from academic research and examines a broader set of university–industry links, particularly in the form of university spin-offs and industrial liaison offices. There is also more focus on regional economic development and on regional and...

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