This chapter outlines the key arguments in the book. Cities and Regions in Crisis suggests that economic development policy failure has been continually moved around. Contradictions necessitate displacement and transformation, but the crisis management strategies of the state themselves are always subject to new forms of crisis tendency, which points to the always unstable nature of economic governance and economic development. It suggests that economic development is heterogeneous, mutable, and involves variegated responses, producing unstable uneven geographical outcomes. A political economy framework for grappling with this is desperately needed and the chapter outlines: firstly, a consideration of the relationship between geography, public policy, the state, and space; secondly, a long-run analysis of the historical specificities, trends, and counter-trends of state intervention within capitalism; and thirdly, the interconnecting of analyses of economic development with changes in social policy, given the value-relations aspects of capitalism within which state intervention occurs.