This chapter suggests that the rescaling of state capacities and competencies associated with the new regionalism is providing an emerging cultural and political territorial space in and through which grassroots social justice movements are becoming visible. The chapter suggests a need to consider two contested processes. In the context of the ‘English question’, it draws a distinction between a state-driven (and somewhat top-down) functional regionalisation and an often pre-existing (and more bottom-up) civil society regionalism. The former captures a general set of trends occurring in advanced capitalism and relates to economic globalisation and the scalar and territorial recasting of state power. The latter represents the different historically-forged connections between territory and identity, which are geographically specific, typically fragmented, and highly uneven across the English regions. The chapter presents this two-fold distinction as a way of analysing the contestation and mobilisation of regions using the East Midlands RDA region to ground concerns with social justice.
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