Comparisons and Performance
3. R&D competitiveness measured Balázs Borsi and András Telcs Previous chapters in this book showed that nations do compete and a substantial part of this competition is played out in the technological R&D and innovation arena. The game is a dynamic and global one, but can we shoot pictures of it that help us understand it better? The answer is a contingent yes. We believe numbers to be reliable yet cross-country R&D statistics undoubtedly carry an amount of uncertainty. Nevertheless in this chapter we would like to present methodological approaches to determine the R&D competitiveness position of countries. The problem of multivariate ranking and efficiency is discussed with the help of three well-known methods: principal component analysis, non-parametric ranking and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). After a brief introduction into the database compiled the ranking methods are explained for the year 2000 in section 3.2. Beyond ranking R&D efficiency is also a discussion problem for which section 3.3 introduces the DEA method. Section 3.4 extends the analysis to two points in time and section 3.5 presents the conclusions. 3.1 COLLECTING THE INDICATORS Ranking and positioning emerged with biological evolution. Species, races and even biomes are competing for survival for which mixed strategies of cooperation and competing are needed. Dominance is a key concept in competition: the dominant species or race has better access to food, water, shelter and the chance of reproduction. The question arises: can we talk about dominant strategies in R&D...
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