Competitiveness in Research and Development
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Competitiveness in Research and Development

Comparisons and Performance

Ádám Török, Balázs Borsi and András Telcs

Competitiveness in Research and Development includes a unique comparative analysis of R & D and innovation systems of transition and developing economies. It also features a comprehensive and critical survey of international literature on the measurement of R & D and innovation performance.
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Chapter 4: Policy Conclusions for the Transition Countries and the Developing World

Ádám Török, Balázs Borsi and András Telcs


Mainstream NIS analyses have usually covered advanced economies where the ‘triple helix’ concept is an adequate tool for describing the institutional framework of R&D and innovation policies, and the picture seems to be quite clear from the viewpoint of evolutionary economics as well. This means more or less transparent and evident relationships between R&D, innovation, productivity and GDP growth, and last but not least the systemic, more specifically institutional framework of the NIS. Other models (such as the ‘random’ approach) can be used for analysing the NISs of less-developed countries, but there are many cases not covered by any of these models known from the literature. The most important among such cases have an intermediate character: they belong to countries which have the chance to catch up with the developing world regarding R&D competitiveness, but the deficiencies of their R&D and innovation systems also make it possible that they will fall back to the level of poorly performing Third World countries. These intermediate or atypical cases are such countries which are currently more or less directly behind the advanced industrial economies on our ranking lists. These countries include the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe as well as a quite small number of successfully industrializing developing countries. 4.1 ECONOMIC TRANSITION, R&D AND NISs: SYSTEMIC AND INSTITUTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS We have included transition economies in our international comparisons, but they have been given only sporadic attention in international R&D policy and NIS related literature so...

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