Scientific Mobility in an Enlarging European Union
INTRODUCTION The previous chapter has demonstrated the importance of scientiﬁc mobility to scientiﬁc labour markets in receiving regions. In the process, it has attempted to expose both the opportunities and challenges that internationalization poses for scientiﬁc sustainability from the perspective of receiving countries. Sustainability is more commonly considered in the context of sending regions and features in many discussions around highly skilled migration and the phenomenon of brain drain. This chapter thus moves on to explore the eﬀects of the kinds of mobility we have identiﬁed on scientiﬁc development and scientists from Bulgaria and Poland. As a result, this chapter is a lengthy one: but this detail is needed to understand fully the experiences of sending regions. It focuses in more detail on the implications of the ﬂows described in Chapter 2 and whether such ﬂows, in themselves, can be considered as evidence of a negative brain or skills drain. The impact of scientiﬁc emigration is unclear and contested. Katseli and colleagues (2006a: 9) argue that whilst ‘massive and unmanaged migration especially of highly skilled migrants can have deleterious eﬀects on service delivery, inequality and labour depletion . . . [it can also] generate substantial direct and indirect gains for sending countries via employment generation, human capital accumulation, remittances, diaspora networks and return migration’. Recent work on the impact of highly skilled migration on Slovakia identiﬁes a range of human capital outcomes, including brain gain, brain drain, brain waste, brain circulation and brain over...
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