Schumpeter, Galbraith, T.H. Marshall, Titmuss and Adam Smith
Chapter 8: T.H. Marshall: Citizenship and Social Rights
Citizenship is ‘a status bestowed on those who are full members of a community’ (Marshall, 1950: 18). It is integration and affiliation, belonging and entitlement. Citizenship is a ‘basic human equality’ in respect of rights and duties, a ‘universal birthright’, a ‘single uniform status’ a ‘universal status’ (ibid.: 6, 19, 21, 44). It is a common identity. It is a link with the past. Citizenship is conservative and continuing. It is ‘a claim to be admitted to a share in the social heritage’ (ibid.: 6) and not just the carpe diem that nips in opportunistically and takes. Citizenship is ‘a direct sense of community membership based on loyalty to a civilisation which is a common possession’ (ibid.: 24). It is not just a legal document which allows its bearer to pass through Heathrow visa-free. Citizenship does not presuppose blood kinship or putative parentage. There is no fiction that all Englishmen are descended from English, even if there is a myth that all Tiv are descended from Tiv. Subjective and sentimental, however, what citizenship does presuppose is a perceived stake in the ‘national consciousness’ and in the ‘common heritage’ (ibid.: 25). In the age of free enterprise and civil rights, Marshall observes, this felt commitment was all too often associated with the narrow exclusivity of ‘jingo patriotism’ (ibid.) and the aggressive national-ism of Rule Britannia. In the new age of welfare services and social rights, that same one-nationness must build upon the ‘material enjoyment’ (ibid.: 28) that integrates the masses with...
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