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Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing

Edited by Russell W. Belk

The Handbook of Qualitative Research Methods in Marketing offers both basic and advanced treatments intended to serve academics, students, and marketing research professionals. The 42 chapters begin with a history of qualitative methods in marketing by Sidney Levy and continue with detailed discussions of current thought and practice in: research paradigms such as grounded theory and semiotics; research contexts such as advertising and brands; data collection methods such as projectives and netnography; data analysis methods such as metaphoric and visual analyses; presentation topics such as videography and reflexivity; applications such as ZMET applied to Broadway plays and depth interviews with executives; and special issues such as multi-sited ethnography and research on sensitive topics.
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Chapter 11: Let’s Pretend: Projective Methods Reconsidered

Dennis W. Rook


Dennis W. Rook The rise, fall and revival of projective methods A huge number of studies using projective research methods appeared in the behavioral science literature between 1940 and 1960, although their origins date back to the late nineteenth century. These studies proliferated in the clinical and developmental psychology fields, as well as in sociological and anthropological research. After World War II, projective techniques rapidly diffused from the behavioral sciences into advertising agencies and market research firms, where they were applied in numerous product development, advertising, media, retailing and consumer studies. Their migration into mainstream marketing was facilitated by several brilliant and charismatic individuals, particularly Ernest Dichter in New York, and the leadership of Social Research, Inc. in Chicago, which included the interdisciplinary team of Lloyd Warner, Burleigh Gardner, William Henry, Lee Rainwater and Sidney Levy. Publications by these and other projective researchers appeared regularly in both academic and trade publications. Two Journal of Marketing articles by Haire (1950) and Rogers and Beal (1958) are widely viewed as classics today. During their heyday, projective methods also featured prominently in several influential marketing academic and trade books about consumer motivation and research (Ferber and Wales, 1958; Henry, 1956; Leonhard, 1955; Newman, 1957; Smith, 1954). Despite their contributions to marketing theory and practice, the popularity of projective research declined dramatically in the 1970s. Not surprisingly, many young researchers gravitated toward newly available computer-assisted analyses of large-scale survey and experimental data. By comparison, typically small-sample projective studies were vulnerable to being...

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