A Comparative Study, Volume 2
- The Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei series on Economics, the Environment and Sustainable Development
Edited by Anil Markandya and Marialuisa Tamborra
Paul Watkiss, Mike Holland and Katie King INTRODUCTION There have been a number of developments in the impact pathway analysis, pioneered by the ExternE and Green Accounting research projects, since the last phase of GARP was completed. Some relate to methodological issues, such as a signiﬁcant increase in the number of eﬀects that are quantiﬁable, or the description of uncertainty. Others relate not to strict methodological developments, but (for example) to a growing acceptance of the methodology as being suﬃciently robust to be useful for informing policy. This chapter highlights the following major developments: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● increased acceptance of the methodology; increase in the range of pollutants and eﬀects that can be considered; updating exposure–response functions; treatment of uncertainty; improved modelling and reporting of air quality; attribution of damages to economic sectors; quantiﬁcation of year on year changes in damages. 3.2 ACCEPTANCE OF THE METHODOLOGY: APPLICATION IN POLICY ANALYSIS The methodology used in GARP is closely linked to that of the European Commission ExternE Project. The methodological outputs of the two studies, taken together, have now been used in a variety of policy applications, covering environmental quality objectives, emission limits and the energy sector. These include: ● ● economic evaluation of a draft directive on waste incineration (AEA Technology, IER, ARMINES, Electrowatt, 1996); economic evaluation of ambient air quality limits for SO2, NO2, ﬁne particles and lead (Instituut voor Milieuvraagstukken (IVM) 34 Developments in pathway analysis 35 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● (Institute for Environmental Studies), Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU) (Norwegian...
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