A Comparative Study, Volume 2
Edited by Anil Markandya and Marialuisa Tamborra
Fintan Hurley, David Howard, Paul Watkiss and Mike Holland This chapter reports the exposure–response functions used in estimating the loss of environmental services resulting from economic activity in each country. These functions include some major revisions since the ﬁrst phase of this project, particularly in the treatment of chronic eﬀects of particle exposure on mortality. All the exposure–response functions used in this study were taken from the ExternE Maintenance and Transport projects, which in turn have built on the earlier ExternE work that was the basis of GARP I. The functions used in the main analysis are presented below by receptor category. 4.1 HEALTH Since the analysis in GARP I, there has been signiﬁcant progress on the quantiﬁcation and valuation of all health eﬀects. On quantiﬁcation, there has been a major revision of exposure–response functions for the classical pollutants: particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide. It is still the case that the main evidence refers to the more-or-less immediate eﬀects of daily levels of these pollutants (acute eﬀects). There has however been substantial progress in understanding how best to use the available evidence regarding how long-term exposure to PM may aﬀect mortality (chronic mortality): this is considered separately below. As stated above, the updated assessments of the emerging epidemiological evidence in this book draw heavily on work carried out for the ExternE programme. Early ExternE work was heavily indebted to...
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