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Green Accounting in Europe

A Comparative Study, Volume 2

Edited by Anil Markandya and Marialuisa Tamborra

Using spatially desegregated data on measures of pollution to derive economic damage estimates, the main purpose of the book is to gauge the environmental damage sustained as a result of economic activities and to offer an insight into how the information generated can be used in conjunction with conventional economic accounts. The first few chapters review recent developments in both green accounting and pathway analysis. The book goes on to evaluate the progress made in estimating dose response functions and valuing environmental damages. The authors discuss the methodology used for the estimation of damages caused by ambient air pollution and the cost of defensive expenditures. They also present the results of the analysis and draw important policy conclusions for environmental accounting, particularly in the EU.
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Chapter 4: Updates to Exposure–Response Functions

Fintan Hurley, David Howard and Paul Watkiss


Fintan Hurley, David Howard, Paul Watkiss and Mike Holland This chapter reports the exposure–response functions used in estimating the loss of environmental services resulting from economic activity in each country. These functions include some major revisions since the first phase of this project, particularly in the treatment of chronic effects of particle exposure on mortality. All the exposure–response functions used in this study were taken from the ExternE Maintenance and Transport projects, which in turn have built on the earlier ExternE work that was the basis of GARP I. The functions used in the main analysis are presented below by receptor category. 4.1 HEALTH Since the analysis in GARP I, there has been significant progress on the quantification and valuation of all health effects. On quantification, there has been a major revision of exposure–response functions for the classical pollutants: particulate matter (PM), ozone (O3), sulphur dioxide (SO2), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and carbon monoxide. It is still the case that the main evidence refers to the more-or-less immediate effects of daily levels of these pollutants (acute effects). There has however been substantial progress in understanding how best to use the available evidence regarding how long-term exposure to PM may affect mortality (chronic mortality): this is considered separately below. As stated above, the updated assessments of the emerging epidemiological evidence in this book draw heavily on work carried out for the ExternE programme. Early ExternE work was heavily indebted to...

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