A Comparative Study, Volume 2
- The Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei series on Economics, the Environment and Sustainable Development
Edited by Anil Markandya and Marialuisa Tamborra
Chapter 6: The Methodology for the Estimation of Impacts and Damage Costs Caused by Ambient Air Pollution
Bert Droste-Franke, Wolfram Krewitt, Rainer Friedrich and Alfred Trukenmüller 6.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter the methodology used for the estimation of impacts and damage costs caused by air pollution and their attribution to sources is described. The impact pathway approach which was developed in ExternE, improved in GARP I (European Commission, 1995) (see Chapter 3) and already used for many studies, for example, European Commission (1997), was followed for the calculations. Measured as well as modelled concentration data were used to estimate physical impacts and damage costs on human health, building materials and ﬁeld crops by applying the recommended exposure–response functions and monetary values discussed in Chapters 4 and 5 respectively. While the use of measurement data allows the estimation of impacts resulting from the actual concentration load within a region, models can be used to trace back pollutant transport and thus to establish a link between impacts and a speciﬁc source at a speciﬁc site. The two following sections brieﬂy describe the two diﬀerent methodologies. 6.2 ESTIMATION OF IMPACTS AND DAMAGE COSTS BY USING MEASURED CONCENTRATION DATA In order to obtain the concentration levels of pollutants at the receptors’ locations, annual average values of measured concentration data for Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK are applied to derive pollution maps. These are used together with the spatially disaggregated receptor data which are described in Chapter 8, Subsection 8.2.3, to estimate physical impacts and damage costs for a one-year exposure to pollutant 87...
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