A Comparative Study, Volume 2
Edited by Anil Markandya and Marialuisa Tamborra
Chapter 8: Estimates of Damage Costs from Air Pollution to Human Health, Crops and Materials
Bert Droste-Franke, Wolfram Krewitt, Rainer Friedrich, Alfred Trukenmüller, Marialuisa Tamborra, Gianluca Crapanzano, Marcella Pavan, Paul Watkiss, Mike Holland, Katie King, Anil Markandya, Ian Milborrow, Alistair Hunt, Onno Kuik, Kees Dorland, Frank A. Spaninks and John F.M. Helming 8.1 INTRODUCTION The current chapter deals with the estimation of impacts caused by anthropogenic emissions based on observed air quality data. The core study contains damage estimations for the countries of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom using the recommended exposure– response functions (see Chapters 4 and 5). First, the air quality data and methodology applied for each country are described in detail. Then the natural background concentrations used for the attribution of damages to anthropogenic origin are discussed. Afterwards, the results are presented in detail for each country and impact category (mortality, morbidity, crops and materials) and summarised by valuing the physical impacts in monetary terms. A sensitivity analysis follows which includes, for the UK only, the assessment of damages in diﬀerent years, damages caused by further pollutants for which no assessment is carried out in the core analysis, and damages estimated by using alternative exposure–response functions for some human health eﬀects. In the ﬁnal part of this section conclusions are derived from the results. 113 114 Results 8.2 DETAILED METHODOLOGY The availability of measurement data for air pollutants diﬀers much between Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK. While concentration maps of geographical high resolution are already available in some countries, in others they...
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