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Green Accounting in Europe

A Comparative Study, Volume 2

Edited by Anil Markandya and Marialuisa Tamborra

Using spatially desegregated data on measures of pollution to derive economic damage estimates, the main purpose of the book is to gauge the environmental damage sustained as a result of economic activities and to offer an insight into how the information generated can be used in conjunction with conventional economic accounts. The first few chapters review recent developments in both green accounting and pathway analysis. The book goes on to evaluate the progress made in estimating dose response functions and valuing environmental damages. The authors discuss the methodology used for the estimation of damages caused by ambient air pollution and the cost of defensive expenditures. They also present the results of the analysis and draw important policy conclusions for environmental accounting, particularly in the EU.
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Chapter 8: Estimates of Damage Costs from Air Pollution to Human Health, Crops and Materials

Bert Droste-Franke, Wolfram Krewitt, Rainer Friedrich, Marialuisa Tamborra and Gianluca Crapanzano


Bert Droste-Franke, Wolfram Krewitt, Rainer Friedrich, Alfred Trukenmüller, Marialuisa Tamborra, Gianluca Crapanzano, Marcella Pavan, Paul Watkiss, Mike Holland, Katie King, Anil Markandya, Ian Milborrow, Alistair Hunt, Onno Kuik, Kees Dorland, Frank A. Spaninks and John F.M. Helming 8.1 INTRODUCTION The current chapter deals with the estimation of impacts caused by anthropogenic emissions based on observed air quality data. The core study contains damage estimations for the countries of Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom using the recommended exposure– response functions (see Chapters 4 and 5). First, the air quality data and methodology applied for each country are described in detail. Then the natural background concentrations used for the attribution of damages to anthropogenic origin are discussed. Afterwards, the results are presented in detail for each country and impact category (mortality, morbidity, crops and materials) and summarised by valuing the physical impacts in monetary terms. A sensitivity analysis follows which includes, for the UK only, the assessment of damages in different years, damages caused by further pollutants for which no assessment is carried out in the core analysis, and damages estimated by using alternative exposure–response functions for some human health effects. In the final part of this section conclusions are derived from the results. 113 114 Results 8.2 DETAILED METHODOLOGY The availability of measurement data for air pollutants differs much between Germany, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK. While concentration maps of geographical high resolution are already available in some countries, in others they...

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