A Comparative Study, Volume 2
Edited by Anil Markandya and Marialuisa Tamborra
Marialuisa Tamborra and Marcella Pavan 15.1 INTRODUCING ENVIRONMENTAL EXPENDITURES1 As mentioned in Chapter 7, the deﬁnition of defensive expenditures was introduced by Leipert (1989) as ‘an indicator of the total monetary burden which society bears annually for the regulation of environmental degradation and damages induced by the economic use of the environment in the past and present periods, including future oriented expenditures’. Broad categories of defensive expenditures are recognised as: ● ● ● environmental protection activities, environmental restoration/treatment of damages, damage avoidance from environmental deterioration. This deﬁnition is broadly consistent with the SERIEE deﬁnition adopted by EUROSTAT in 1994, and incorporated recently into the SEEA revision. In this chapter monetary data are reported in Euro. Original ﬁgures in national currency were transformed into ECU using average exchange rates for 1994 or 1995, since calculations were made before 31 December 1998, when ﬁxed exchange rates were not yet available. However, as an approximation, values are reported in Euro, as this approximation does not aﬀect the substance of the chapter. In the following data are reported that were available at the time of the research project: in the meantime data availability has improved signiﬁcantly, thanks to the joint eﬀorts of Eurostat and the OECD. At the end of the chapter (see Table 15.25) more recent data are displayed in order to show the advancement in this ﬁeld and to provide a better picture of environmental expenditure in the EU-15 and not only in the case study countries. 429 430...
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