Edited by John B. Davis and Wilfred Dolfsma
Chapter 2: Institutions, Culture and Values
Anne Mayhew ‘Institutions’, ‘culture’ and ‘values’ have, for more than a century, been key components of the discourse of the social sciences and of social economics. However, what is more interesting than continuity of usage are the great diﬀerences in the meaning and importance of the terms within a changing set of sub-discourses. These diﬀerences and their evolution will be the focus of this chapter. Across all of the scholarly discussions that I will describe below there is, and has been, a general understanding that institutions are social norms or patterns of action (behavior) and associated emic (which is to say native as opposed to analytical) understandings that vary across time and space.1 It is also generally agreed that cultures are conglomerations of institutions that are shared by a group of people. Values are aspects of cultures and of institutional patterns. From roughly 1870 to 1940, as the social sciences took their modern and academically organized form, institutions, cultures and values were deﬁned primarily by methods of study. Working deﬁnitions were suﬃcient given wide consensus about what it was right and important to do as social scientists. In the decades from 1940 until the end of the twentieth century, as this consensus disintegrated, more attention was given to formal deﬁnition of the key terms. Given a lack of disciplinary conﬁdence in method, it seemed more important to say what it was that was being studied. In the ﬁrst decade of the twenty-ﬁrst...
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