Growth-oriented Women Entrepreneurs and their Businesses
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Growth-oriented Women Entrepreneurs and their Businesses

A Global Research Perspective

Edited by Candida G. Brush, Nancy M. Carter, Elizabeth J. Gatewood, Patricia G. Greene and Myra M. Hart

Enterprising new firms drive economic growth, and women around the world are important contributors to that growth. As entrepreneurs, they seize opportunities, develop and deliver new goods and services and, in the process, create wealth for themselves, their families, communities, and countries. This volume explores the role women entrepreneurs play in this economic progress, highlighting the challenges they encounter in launching and growing their businesses, and providing detailed studies of how their experiences vary from country to country.
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Chapter 5: Women’s Entrepreneurship in Finland

Anne Kovalainen and Pia Arenius


Anne Kovalainen and Pia Arenius A. FINLAND LABOR FORCE OVERVIEW In 2004 the total population of Finland is 5214051, of which 79 percent are older than 18 years of age (US Census International Database, 2004). Of the adult population, 2122805 (52 percent) are women and 1985686 (48 percent) are men. The size of the labor force, that is, people between 15 and 74 years, is 2594000. Of these, 1247000 (48 percent) are women and 1346000 (52 percent) are men. In 2004 there were 301000 employers and own-account workers in Finland, of which 32 percent were women (97000) and 68 percent men (204000) (2004 Labor Force Survey, Statistics Finland). In 2004, the rate of unemployment was 8.8 per cent, having been 9.0 percent one year earlier (Statistics Finland, 2004). According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) study, the total entrepreneurial activity (TEA) rate in Finland in 2004 was 4.4 percent compared to 6.9 percent in 2003 (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), 2004). The female entrepreneurial activity rate in 2004 was 2.8 percent compared with 5 percent of men (GEM Finland, 2004). Men are more active than women in all age cohorts. The entrepreneurial activity rate of men also peaks earlier than that of women. Men are entrepreneurially most active during the age of 25 years to 34 years, whereas women are entrepreneurially most active during the age of 35 to 44 years. B. PROFILE OF WOMEN’S ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN FINLAND Extent and Nature of Women’s Entrepreneurship in Finland The most extensive data on...

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