A Global Research Perspective
Edited by Candida G. Brush, Nancy M. Carter, Elizabeth J. Gatewood, Patricia G. Greene and Myra M. Hart
Chapter 10: Builders and Leaders: Six Case Studies of Men and Women Small Proprietors in the Bulgarian Construction Industry
Tatiana S. Manolova* INTRODUCTION Economies in transition have lately seen a rapid rise in entrepreneurship. During the 1990s, about 5 percent of the adult working population in these countries has attempted to start a new business or become self-employed, a figure very similar to the percentage of nascent entrepreneurs in the United States or Western Europe (Peng, 2001). Prolific as the rate of new business formation is, private businesses in transition economies are usually less growth-oriented than their Western counterparts. Reasons for the low growth orientation of entrepreneurial ventures in transition economies include personal autonomy rather than business growth motivations (Scase, 1997), resource scarcity, environmental uncertainty and weak institutional endorsement (Tan, 1996, 2002; Tsang, 1996), as well as prevailing cultural tendencies (Lee and Peterson, 2000; Verheulet al., 2004). Women-led entrepreneurial businesses in transition economies, in particular, have shown a lower propensity to grow and a higher propensity to exit under unfavorable industry and competitive conditions. This finding is replicated by studies in Uzbekistan (Welter et al., 2003), Slovenia (Tominc, 2003), Russia (Izyumov and Razumnova, 2000); Poland (Bliss and Garratt, 2001), and Hungary (Hisrich and Fulop, 1994; Szerb and Pinter, 2003). Two recent surveys in Bulgaria reveal lower expectations among women entrepreneurs for growth and development of their ventures (Agency for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (ASME), 2002; Stoyanovska et al., 2000). Thus, only one-third of the women entrepreneurs surveyed stated they intended to grow their businesses compared with 50 percent of the men entrepreneurs (ASME, 2002). The lower growth propensity of...
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