A Global Research Perspective
Edited by Candida G. Brush, Nancy M. Carter, Elizabeth J. Gatewood, Patricia G. Greene and Myra M. Hart
Chapter 14: Female Entrepreneurial Growth Aspirations in Slovenia: An Unexploited Resource
Polona Tominc and Miroslav Rebernik INTRODUCTION In most countries the share of men in entrepreneurship is much higher than the share of women. Recent empirical evidence is found in Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research report (Acs et al., 2005). GEM is a cross-national research programme, aimed at describing and analysing entrepreneurial process in its early stage (start-up phase) within a wide range of countries. The GEM study for 2004 reports that in general, there are almost twice as many men who are active entrepreneurs than women. These differences are consistent across age groups and in no country are there more women who are active entrepreneurs than men, even though there is a wide variation between countries. The largest gender division occurs within the middle-income countries with a per capita GDP between 10000 and 25000 US$ (like Slovenia, Greece or Spain), where men are on average 75 per cent more likely than women to be active entrepreneurs. The smallest gap appears in the high-income countries with a per capita GDP over 25000 US$ (like USA or Finland), where the percentage difference falls to 33 per cent. In lowincome countries with per capita GDP up to 10000 US$ (like Peru, South Africa, Hungary and Ecuador) men are on average 41 per cent more likely to be active in entrepreneurial activity than women. There is wide evidence of the importance of female entrepreneurs in the economic development of a country, with regard to their contribution to job creation and economic growth, as well...
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