Policy and Practice in the Americas, Europe and Japan
Edited by Martin Cave and Kiyoshi Nakamura
Chapter 8: Legal and Economic Issues of Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV) from an Industrial Perspective
Koichiro Hayashi1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the legal and economic questions associated with digital terrestrial television (DTTV) from an industrial perspective by examining, as an example, the Japanese DTTV service launched at the end of 2003. The author hopes that this analysis provides a common perspective not only to the United Kingdom and the United States but also to other countries that intend to introduce digital terrestrial television services. LAUNCH OF DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION BROADCASTING2 In Japan, the DTV service was started in three distinct major metropolitan areas, namely Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka, on 1 December 2003, nearly ﬁve years later than in the United States and the United Kingdom. The broadcasts were made by Nippon Hoso Kyokai (Japan Broadcasting Corporation, better known as the NHK) and 16 commercial broadcasters. Satellite television services from what is referred to as the ‘broadcasting satellites’ (BS) and ‘communication satellites’ (CS) as well as television services from some cable television operators had already changed to digital broadcasts. However, given that almost all households across the country enjoy terrestrial television, the changeover from analogue terrestrial television to digital broadcast is considered to have a much greater impact. In fact, this historical service made a rather quiet start for a number of reasons. First, DTTV carries almost the same content as the analogue service. Second, the analogue service will continue alongside DTTV until 2011, hereinafter referred to as ‘simulcast’.3 Third, the digital service in the Tokyo area, where more than 30 per cent of all Japanese...
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