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Digital Broadcasting

Policy and Practice in the Americas, Europe and Japan

Edited by Martin Cave and Kiyoshi Nakamura

Digital television is transforming both broadcasting and, as a result of convergence, the larger world of communications. The impending analogue switch-off will have a major impact on households all over the developed world. Digital Broadcasting considers the effects of digital television on the availability, price and nature of broadcast services in the Americas, Europe and Japan. It shows how this depends upon what platforms – cable, satellite, fixed or wireless broadband – countries have available for use and also upon government policies and regulatory interventions.
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Chapter 8: Legal and Economic Issues of Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV) from an Industrial Perspective

Koichiro Hayashi


Koichiro Hayashi1 INTRODUCTION This chapter discusses the legal and economic questions associated with digital terrestrial television (DTTV) from an industrial perspective by examining, as an example, the Japanese DTTV service launched at the end of 2003. The author hopes that this analysis provides a common perspective not only to the United Kingdom and the United States but also to other countries that intend to introduce digital terrestrial television services. LAUNCH OF DIGITAL TERRESTRIAL TELEVISION BROADCASTING2 In Japan, the DTV service was started in three distinct major metropolitan areas, namely Tokyo, Nagoya and Osaka, on 1 December 2003, nearly five years later than in the United States and the United Kingdom. The broadcasts were made by Nippon Hoso Kyokai (Japan Broadcasting Corporation, better known as the NHK) and 16 commercial broadcasters. Satellite television services from what is referred to as the ‘broadcasting satellites’ (BS) and ‘communication satellites’ (CS) as well as television services from some cable television operators had already changed to digital broadcasts. However, given that almost all households across the country enjoy terrestrial television, the changeover from analogue terrestrial television to digital broadcast is considered to have a much greater impact. In fact, this historical service made a rather quiet start for a number of reasons. First, DTTV carries almost the same content as the analogue service. Second, the analogue service will continue alongside DTTV until 2011, hereinafter referred to as ‘simulcast’.3 Third, the digital service in the Tokyo area, where more than 30 per cent of all Japanese...

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