Edited by Alessandro Lanza, Anil Markandya and Francesco Pigliaru
Chapter 7: Sustainable tourism and economic instruments: international experience and the case of Hvar, Croatia
1 Tim Taylor, Maja Fredotovic, Daria Povh and Anil Markandya INTRODUCTION Tourism activities often have a signiﬁcant environmental impact on a tourist destination, including congestion and pollution. These environmental concerns have led to moves towards the development of sustainable tourism in recent years, particularly as the numbers of tourists and the distances they are travelling has increased. Such developments have included the use of ecolabelling, for example, the use of ‘ecotourism’, and the taxing of tourists in order to raise the revenues to correct the environmental damage caused. This chapter examines the latter of these two measures, ﬁrst from an international perspective and then from the local case of Hvar, Croatia. DEFINING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM There are a number of deﬁnitions of sustainable tourism. The distinctions arise due to diﬀerences in the deﬁnition of sustainability, and this obviously impacts on how certain sectors can be seen to be making progress towards sustainability. Sustainable tourism may be deﬁned as ‘the optimal use of natural and cultural resources for national development on an equitable and self sustaining basis to provide a unique visitor experience and an improved quality of life through partnership among government, the private sector and communities’ (OECS website, undated). Others have considered sustaining tourist numbers to be the objective. Whatever the case, it is clear that tourism has important economic, social and environmental implications that should not be overlooked in evaluating the 197 198 The economics of tourism and sustainable development impacts of the tourist...
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