The Economics of Tourism and Sustainable Development
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The Economics of Tourism and Sustainable Development

Edited by Alessandro Lanza, Anil Markandya and Francesco Pigliaru

Although economics has increasingly become a technical subject, this accessible book aims to present important economics results and relate them explicitly to the policy debate. Using a coherent analytical framework, this unique approach offers prescriptions for moving tourism, and economic development more generally, closer to a sustainable ideal. The authors begin by studying the macroeconomic effect of tourism in terms of growth performance and sources of growth. They also examine how the tourism–growth link is affected by the role of imports in the economy, and how tourism impacts upon land use. Further chapters investigate the important issue of forecasting visitor numbers and explore the need for a comprehensive accounting framework to take account of ecologically sustainable tourism. The authors also examine the microeconomic aspects of sustainable tourism and analyse the increasing popularity of environmentally friendly holidays.
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Chapter 8: Tourism and sustainable development: lessons from recent World Bank experience

Anil Markandya, Tim Taylor and Suzette Pedroso


Anil Markandya, Tim Taylor and Suzette Pedroso 1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this chapter is to look at how the World Bank has treated tourism in its development strategy and in its lending and other activities. Until recently, tourism was not a major focus of World Bank efforts, though an increased recognition of this sector as a driver for economic growth and sustainable development has led to its inclusion in a number of projects. World Bank strategies are starting to include sustainable tourism development as an objective, but progress is slow and tourism has been targeted in some Country Assistance Strategies (CAS) and Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs). The chapter is structured as follows. Section 2 reviews the findings of the research on the key linkages between tourism and development and looks at the relevance of this to the World Bank and its operations. Section 3 reports on the Bank lending that has been supportive of tourism (directly or indirectly), through financial and technical assistance for infrastructure investment, management of tourism facilities and sites and general community development. Fifty-nine projects have been looked at, which cover the last five years (1997–2002). Section 4 examines those projects that have had at least some funding from GEF (Global Environment Facility) sources as well as the Bank. These are projects involving protection of global public goods, such as biodiversity, where the case for some tourism is frequently made on the grounds that such use of the resource can provide some of...

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