Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship Policy
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Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship Policy

Edited by David B. Audretsch, Isabel Grilo and A. Roy Thurik

This unique Handbook provides a solid foundation for essential study in the nascent field of entrepreneurship policy research. This foundation is initially developed via the exploration of two significant propositions underpinning the nature of entrepreneurship policy research. The first is that entrepreneurship has emerged as a bona fide focus of public policy, particularly with respect to economic growth and employment creation. The second is that neither scholars nor policy makers are presently equipped to understand the public policy role for entrepreneurship.
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Chapter 10: Quantitative and Qualitative Studies of University Technology Transfer: Synthesis and Policy Recommendations

Donald S. Siegel


Donald S. Siegel Introduction In the late 1970s, US universities were often criticized for being more adept at developing new technologies than facilitating their commercial use in the private sector (General Accounting Office, 1998). More specifically, some policy makers asserted that the long lag between the discovery of new knowledge at the university and its use by domestic firms had significantly weakened the global competitiveness of American firms (Marshall, 1985). In 1980, the US Congress attempted to remove potential obstacles to university technology transfer by passing the Bayh–Dole Act. Bayh–Dole instituted a uniform patent policy across federal agencies, removed many restrictions on licensing, and allowed universities to own patents arising from federal research grants. The framers of this legislation asserted that university ownership and management of intellectual property would accelerate the commercialization of new technologies and promote economic development and entrepreneurial activity. It appears that the legacy of Bayh–Dole is quite dramatic. In the aftermath of this legislation, research universities in the US established technology transfer offices (TTOs) to manage and protect their intellectual property. TTOs facilitate commercial knowledge transfers through the licensing to industry of inventions or other forms of intellectual property resulting from university research. The rate of technology commercialization has increased substantially. The Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM), which represents licensing officers at universities and other research institutions, reported in 2004 that annual measures of university patenting, licensing activity, and startup formation have all increased more than tenfold...

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