Emerging Technology Innovation Poles
Chapter 5: Comparative Analysis of the Selected North American Knowledge Regions: Lessons and Conclusions
INTRODUCTION The fourteen North American technology innovation poles (TIPs) described in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 form a very heterogeneous sample. The diversity in their development profiles may be attributed to several factors: their respective national culture and regional norms; their socio-economic environment and system of innovation; the local conditions and resources present at the outset of development; respective economic transformation agendas; local organizations, local leaders and innovation institutions. It may also be due to the timing of development with respect to economic and business cycles or even to the development process itself. The objective of this chapter is to learn from these differences by analyzing the prevailing conditions, key regional characteristics, mechanisms employed, and decisions made during the course of growing these TIPs. These lessons may provide useful insights and compelling evidence as to why some TIPs are more fortunate than others in developing, attracting and retaining technology-oriented firms. The chapter starts with a comparison of the NAFTA countries’ national systems of innovation. As outlined in Chapters 2, 3 and 4 and summarized below, there are significant differences between the three countries in terms of socio-economic conditions in which science and technology, talent and capital issues are addressed and how these differences affect their regional development. This is followed by a comparison of the twelve TIPs examined in this book and by an analysis of the characteristics and effectiveness of some of the incubation mechanisms used in each region. The chapter ends with perspectives on innovation and TIPs in...
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