Edited by Aura Reggiani and Peter Nijkamp
Chapter 10: Modelling the Entrepreneurial Space-Economy: An Overview
Peter Nijkamp and Leo van Wissen 10.1 ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN A MODERN ECONOMY Industrial dynamics is decisive for the evolution of cities and regions. Yet, such evolutionary processes are not the result of autonomous or given factors, but are instigated by innovative behaviour and modern entrepreneurship. Innovation and entrepreneurship imply the design, production and successful exploitation of new ideas, knowledge, technologies, products, procedures, processes, regulations or organizational modes. Smart competitive strategies are a sine qua non for a successful city or region (see Suarez-Villa 1989; Acs 2002; van Oort 2004). Clearly, entrepreneurship is not just a feature of our age. In the 19th century, in the period of the Industrial Revolution, we have even seen an avalanche of innovations in the context of a new entrepreneurial spirit. Since then, there have apparently been waves of new entrepreneurship and innovations. In the early years of the 21st century, the centrality of entrepreneurship in economic development is unquestioned. New firms and new industries continue to fill gaps in the market left by established firms (Norton 2001). New gaps continue to appear, as societies demand new services, as well as old services in new forms and at different times. The Internet and related information and communications technologies (ICTs) are central to the changes that are taking place. Entrepreneurs, particularly knowledge- and technology-based entrepreneurs, find the agglomeration advantages of large cities attractive and, therefore, reinforce those advantages. The effects of these technologies are not unidirectional, relaxing, or even completely eliminating, the constraints of distance on...
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