Edited by Aura Reggiani and Peter Nijkamp
Chapter 15: Dynamic Effects of Transport Costs on Urban Shape
Francesca Medda, Peter Nijkamp and Piet Rietveld 15.1 INTRODUCTION Urban dynamics, investigated inter alia by means of system dynamics, predator–prey modelling or dynamic simulation of growth processes of the city, has offered analytical instruments to cope with the (socio)-economic dynamics of cities. Much less attention has been paid, however, to the structural shape changes of the urban territory in relation to transport costs from a spatial-dynamic perspective. When we examine urban growth and transport, we often observe a dual relationship between variables that induce growth and variables that halt it (Engle et al. 1992; Sakashita 1995; Brueckner and Lai 1996; Sasaki 1998). This approach of deploying a joint analysis of growth-inducing and growth-inhibiting variables has been used in various dynamic social or ecological systems: for example, to examine the formation of valleys and rivers by erosion, or the developmental patterns of animals such as the hydra. An appropriate analytical tool has been developed to simulate growth through a process of counterbalances among determining variables; it is known as the morphogenetic algorithm, first defined and developed by Turing in 1952. In the present study we model how transport cost, which we assume is a function of distance as well as time, impacts on the growth of the city. To do so, we analyse the problem within a dynamic setting and, in particular, we apply the morphogenetic algorithm as a general mechanism for mapping out space–time dynamics. The approach we propose in this chapter applies the essentials of the...
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