An Economic Perspective on Trade Mark Law
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An Economic Perspective on Trade Mark Law

Andrew Griffiths

An Economic Perspective on Trade Mark Law uses economic analysis to examine the capacity of a trade mark to stimulate and strengthen demand for marked products and the trade mark’s role in marketing and business organization.
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Chapter 1: Trade Marks in Modern Commercial Life

Andrew Griffiths


1. TRADE MARKS AND MARKETING 1.1 A Trade Mark as a Marketing Resource This book will examine various ways in which trade marks contribute to the organization and conduct of economic activity. It will show how a trade mark provides the legal basis of a marketing resource that a firm can use to stimulate or strengthen specific demand for its goods or services (or its ‘products’).1 Through registering a particular word, word combination, logo or other sign as a trade mark,2 a firm (or other kind of legal person) can acquire exclusive rights which enable it to use the sign to market products of the kind designated in the registration.3 The proprietor (or 1 This book will focus on the system that enables firms to register signs as trade marks for designated categories of products and the term ‘trade mark’ will be used to mean a registered trade mark unless the context requires otherwise. However, in the United Kingdom, the tort of passing off provides extensive legal protection for goodwill that has come to be focused on a sign used as a trade mark regardless of whether or not it has been registered. On the meaning of ‘goodwill’, see below at nn. 71–75. On the tort of passing off, see Carty, 2010, pp. 225–282. 2 Section 1(1) of the United Kingdom’s Trade Marks Act 1994 Act (‘the 1994 Act’) defines a trade mark as ‘any sign capable of being represented graphically which is...

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