Chapter 2: Darwin and Marx at the Crossroads
It is theory that decides what can be observed. Albert Einstein 2.1 INTRODUCTION A massive 1934 mural by Diego Rivera in Mexico City is entitled ‘Man at the Crossroads’. To the colourful right of the picture are Diego’s chosen symbols of liberation, including Karl Marx, Vladimir Illych Lenin, Leon Trotsky, several young female athletes and the massed proletariat. To the greyer left of the mural are sinister battalions of marching gas-masked soldiers, the ancient statue of a fearsome god and the seated figure of a bearded Charles Darwin. These conceptions of good and evil, progress and regress, and light and shade, were prominent in much of Western social science for the next fifty years.1 In 1999 the British Broadcasting Corporation asked their radio listeners to name the greatest men and women of the millennium. Ten years after the dismantling of the Berlin Wall and eight years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, Marx topped the poll. Einstein, Newton and Darwin followed in that order. Among these, Darwin and Marx stand out as the supreme theorists of structural change in complex living systems. They tried to understand the operative forces and processes of development in life and in human society, and both had a huge influence on our ideas.2 However, Marx is often neglected for ideological reasons and the contribution of Darwin is typically regarded as confined to biology. Even among ‘evolutionary economists’ the application of Darwinian ideas to the social sciences remains controversial. Only a tiny minority of sociologists...
You are not authenticated to view the full text of this chapter or article.
Elgaronline requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books or journals. Please login through your library system or with your personal username and password on the homepage.
Non-subscribers can freely search the site, view abstracts/ extracts and download selected front matter and introductory chapters for personal use.
Your library may not have purchased all subject areas. If you are authenticated and think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.