Intermodality, E-Commerce, Logistics and Sustainability
Edited by Thomas R. Leinbach and Cristina Capineri
Chapter 6: E-Commerce, Logistics and the Future of Globalized Freight
William P. Anderson and Thomas R. Leinbach INTRODUCTION E-commerce may be deﬁned broadly as the trading of goods and services over computer-mediated networks (Eurostat 2002). Computer-mediated networks may be either private or public, but in recent years there has been a massive shift from private networks toward the ‘open’ Internet. E-commerce activities are generally divided into two categories: business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B). While an earlier paper (Anderson et al. 2003) focused on B2C e-commerce, this chapter will focus on B2B. More speciﬁcally, this chapter seeks to assess the potential inﬂuence of expanded B2B e-commerce on volumes, patterns and structure of freight services. As Table 6.1 shows, 94 per cent of the shipments classiﬁed as e-commerce by the US Bureau of the Census in 2003 were in the B2B category; 21 per cent of all manufacturing shipments to other ﬁrms were classed as e-commerce, as compared with only 1.7 per cent of retail sales (US Bureau of the Census 2005). B2B also dominated e-commerce in the European Union, with a share of 87 per cent in 2001. Table 6.2 illustrates that, as in the US, manufacturing Table 6.1 E-commerce penetration in US industries, 2003 E-commerce as % of total sales Total B2B Manufacturing Wholesale B2C Retail Other services 10.1 19.0 21.2 16.9 1.3 1.7 1.0 Share of total e-commerce 100 94.3 49.8 44.5 5.7 3.0 2.7 Source: US Bureau of the Census (2005). 167 168 Globalized freight, sustainability, E-commerce and technology Table 6.2 Per cent of...
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