Markets, Clusters and Innovation
Chapter 5: Varieties of Business System and Innovation
INTRODUCTION We noted in the introductory chapter to this book that business systems literature exists and is complementary to our neo-Schumpeterian impulse in taking an institutional approach to economic evolution. It is particularly resonant with work conducted at the level of national innovation systems for the reason that it is national business systems that are the focus of study. Little sub-national research exists in this tradition, therefore its approach has only limited value at the regional level of analysis to the forefront here. Nevertheless, we shall return to this tradition later in the chapter when we examine its propositions concerning, particularly, distinctive entrepreneurship cultures as between liberal and coordinated market regimes. We already commented on the emphasis in national business systems research upon multinationals rather than SMEs, something shared to some extent with national innovation systems research. But there is somewhat more of an interest in the former, business systems approach, on aspects of talentformation which also interest us. Indeed, there are lacunae in the national innovation systems approach regarding both talent and entrepreneurship, the latter surprising given Schumpeter’s celebrated highlighting of this kind of actor in assisting the evolution of capitalism through facilitating ‘creative destruction’. Although critical of the earlier predominance of the study of ‘technology’ in innovation studies, and correctly, seeking to present a more rounded picture, national innovation systems research has remained fairly relentlessly concerned with industries more than the inputs to industries except for its concern with ‘science and technology’ policies and the governance of that...
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