Markets, Clusters and Innovation
Chapter 7: UK ICT and Biotechnology Performance: The Significance of Collaboration and Clustering
7. UK ICT and biotechnology performance: the signiﬁcance of collaboration and clustering INTRODUCTION As highlighted in previous chapters of this book, the UK has moved more towards the knowledge economy than other European countries. According to the OECD Science and Technology Outlook (2004), the UK is well positioned in both knowledge-intensive services, such as telecommunications, ﬁnance, insurance and business services, and hightechnology industry, such as pharmaceuticals, aircraft, ICT equipment and precision instruments. Knowledge-intensive services account for approximately 23 per cent of UK value-added, putting the UK behind only Switzerland, Luxembourg and the USA. High-technology industries account for almost 35 per cent of UK manufacturing exports, with only Ireland, South Korea, Switzerland and the USA having a larger share of these industries in total exports. The UK also accounted for over 4 per cent of worldwide value-added in manufacturing in 2002, making it the sixth-largest manufacturing nation in the world, behind the USA, Japan, China, Germany and France (OECD, 2004). Subsequently, the UK surpassed France to rank ﬁfth. Nonetheless, the UK’s most obvious knowledge-based strengths are in ICT and pharmaceutical biotechnology, industries with a major presence in both the manufacturing and service categories of the OECD’s knowledge-based industries classiﬁcation (OECD, 1999). As already mentioned in the previous chapter, the ICT industry is conventionally referred to as a group of activities including IT hardware, electronics components and systems, telecommunications and IT services. The manufacturing side of ICT – which comprises IT hardware, electronic components and systems – is characterized by much industrial...
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