Globalization, Change and Policy in Asia and Europe
Edited by Charles Edquist and Leif Hommen
Chapter 8: Low Innovation Intensity, High Growth and Specialized Trajectories: Norway
8. Low innovation intensity, high growth and specialized trajectories: Norway Terje Grønning, Svein Erik Moen and Dorothy Sutherland Olsen 1 INTRODUCTION The Norwegian economy is one of the major puzzles within studies of economic growth and welfare. The country ranks high on indicators for economic output and standard of living, but low on innovation output indicators. In this chapter, we explore the functioning of the Norwegian national system of innovation (NSI) with this main puzzle in mind. The account builds on oﬃcial statistics, published survey results, secondary literature, and, in connection with Section 4.4, interviews with two ﬁrms, three ministries and nine diﬀerent support organizations for incubation, funding and policy. The chapter follows the same structure as other chapters in this volume: an examination of the main traits of the NSI and of the propensity to innovate, analyses of activities within the NSI, of the system’s degree of openness and of policy traits and concerns. In order to identify and describe the main traits of the economy, we include an explicit focus on technological trajectories (Pavitt, 1984; Archibugi, 2001). On the one hand, a large segment of the economy is related to extraction of natural resources and is populated mainly by the scale-intensive and supplier-based trajectories. On the other hand, a limited number of ﬁrms within the science-based trajectory constitute an alternative segment where one part is linked to extraction of natural resources through supplies and services, but where another part is relatively independent of those activities....
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