Small Country Innovation Systems
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Small Country Innovation Systems

Globalization, Change and Policy in Asia and Europe

Edited by Charles Edquist and Leif Hommen

This major book presents case studies of ten small country national systems of innovation (NSIs) in Europe and Asia, namely, Denmark, Finland, Hong Kong, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Singapore, South Korea, Sweden and Taiwan. These cases have been carefully selected as examples of success within the context of globalization and as ‘new economies’ where competition is increasingly based on innovation.
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Chapter 8: Low Innovation Intensity, High Growth and Specialized Trajectories: Norway

Terje Grønning, Svein Erik Moen and Dorothy Sutherland Olsen


Terje Grønning, Svein Erik Moen and Dorothy Sutherland Olsen 1 INTRODUCTION The Norwegian economy is one of the major puzzles within studies of economic growth and welfare. The country ranks high on indicators for economic output and standard of living, but low on innovation output indicators. In this chapter, we explore the functioning of the Norwegian national system of innovation (NSI) with this main puzzle in mind. The account builds on official statistics, published survey results, secondary literature, and, in connection with Section 4.4, interviews with two firms, three ministries and nine different support organizations for incubation, funding and policy. The chapter follows the same structure as other chapters in this volume: an examination of the main traits of the NSI and of the propensity to innovate, analyses of activities within the NSI, of the system’s degree of openness and of policy traits and concerns. In order to identify and describe the main traits of the economy, we include an explicit focus on technological trajectories (Pavitt, 1984; Archibugi, 2001). On the one hand, a large segment of the economy is related to extraction of natural resources and is populated mainly by the scale-intensive and supplier-based trajectories. On the other hand, a limited number of firms within the science-based trajectory constitute an alternative segment where one part is linked to extraction of natural resources through supplies and services, but where another part is relatively independent of those activities. As a third segment, there is an innovation-intensive trajectory of...

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