Theory and Practice
Appendix: Research methods
SAMPLE/DATA SOURCES This study investigated multinational banking in China. The research questions were examined using a sample of foreign banks in Mainland China. Analysis focused on subsidiary level including representative oﬃce, branch, subsidiary and JV. A list of foreign banks was obtained from China Statistical Yearbook of Finance. The list was then veriﬁed with a database at the central bank. A total of 178 banks were surveyed. The number equaled the actual total number of foreign banks operating in China when this research was carried out. It was assumed that this source represented a good approximation to the population of qualifying banks and that any selection biases would be minimal. Our sampled banks for interviews were selected based on the criteria of location, nationality and local market commitment. We targeted banks located in major cities such as Beijing and Shanghai where foreign banks clustered and local economic activities were active. This decision was also driven by the need to keep the interview costs of the project relatively low. A total of 33 foreign banks were interviewed, accounting for 18.5 per cent of the total number of foreign banks. The country of origin of these 33 banks was diversiﬁed across 20 diﬀerent nations that accounted for 53 per cent of the total 38 source countries. At the initial stage of the ﬁeldwork, four banks were introduced by the Ministry of Finance and the PBOC. We later found out that being introduced from top supervision bodies might have...
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