Edited by Neal M. Ashkanasy and Cary L. Cooper
Chapter 19: Not all Emotional Display Rules are Created Equal: Distinguishing between Prescriptive and Contextual Display Rules
James M. Diefendorﬀ and Erin M. Richard Introduction Emotional labor can be deﬁned as the management of emotions as part of the work role (Hochschild, 1983). Research on emotional labor has advanced considerably in recent years. A search of the key words ‘emotional labor’ in PsycINFO yielded 348 hits of which 286 (82.18%) occurred in the most recent ﬁve years (2001–05). This growth of interest in emotional labor mirrors the organizational reality that emotions are more important than ever as many jobs have shifted from production work to service work, and the structure of organizations has moved from individual to team-based contributors (Arvey et al., 1998). Such changes naturally place a greater premium on interpersonal interactions, in which emotions play a key role. Acknowledging the increased importance of emotion management at work, researchers have begun to closely examine the components and antecedents of emotional labor. Perhaps the most critical antecedents are emotional display rules. Emotional display rules provide the standards for appropriate emotional expressions in interpersonal situations (Ekman, 1973) and are widely regarded as the impetus behind the emotional labor process (Rafaeli & Sutton, 1987; Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993; Grandey, 2000; Diefendorﬀ & Gosserand, 2003; Cropanzano et al., 2004). Research on display rules has demonstrated that they relate to a variety of individual and organizational outcomes (Schaubroeck & Jones, 2000; Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002; Diefendorﬀ & Richard, 2003; Diefendorﬀ et al., 2005, 2006; Gosserand & Diefendorﬀ, 2005). However, close examination of the display rule concept in organizational research (e.g., Grandey, 2000; Diefendorﬀ & Richard, 2003) suggests...
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